Ergonomics (from Greek ergon work and nomoi natural laws) is the study of optimizing the interface between human beings, and the designed objects and environments they interact with (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergonomics).
Environmental Ergonomics concentrates on the interaction between the user and his or her physical environment. That physical environment is e.g. characterised by:
In the context of the society, most of the research is on thermal environments. Extreme heat, Cold and e.g. the role of (protective) clothing, but also thermal comfort.
Further topics are altitude and hyperbaric exposure and many others.
Most researchers in this area work on the borderline with sports science, human performance etc. and approach the topics from the physiological as well as psychological and physical side.
Have a look at the conference papers under 'publications' to see the multitude of topics that are dealt with in this research area.